IAS 7 — Statement of Cash Flows (2024)


IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows requires an entity to present a statement of cash flows as an integral part of its primary financial statements. Cash flows are classified and presented into operating activities (either using the 'direct' or 'indirect' method), investing activities or financing activities, with the latter two categories generally presented on a gross basis.

IAS 7 was reissued in December 1992, retitled in September 2007, and is operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1994.

History of IAS 7

June1976Exposure Draft E7 Statement of Source and Application of Funds
October1977IAS 7 Statement of Changes in Financial Position
July1991Exposure Draft E36 Cash Flow Statements
December1992IAS 7 (1992) Cash Flow Statements
1January1994Effective date of IAS 7 (1992)
6September2007Retitled from Cash Flow Statements to Statement of Cash Flows as a consequential amendment resulting from revisions to IAS 1
16April2009IAS 7 amended by Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2009 with respect to expenditures that do not result in a recognised asset.
1July2009Effective date for amendments from IAS 27(2008) relating to changes in ownership of a subsidiary
1January2010Effective date of the April 2009 revisions to IAS 7
29 January2016Amended by Disclosure Initiative (Amendments to IAS 7)
1January2017Effective date of theJanuary2016 revisions to IAS 7
25 May 2023Amended by Supplier Finance Arrangements (Amendments to IAS 7 and IFRS 7)
1January2024Effective date of the May2023 revisions to IAS 7

Related Interpretations

  • None

Amendments under consideration by the IASB

  • None

Summary of IAS 7

Objective of IAS 7

The objective of IAS 7 is to require the presentation of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an entity by means of a statement of cash flows, which classifies cash flows during the period according to operating, investing, and financing activities.

Fundamental principle in IAS 7

All entities that prepare financial statements in conformity with IFRSs are required to present a statement of cash flows. [IAS 7.1]

The statement of cash flows analyses changes in cash and cash equivalents during a period. Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand and demand deposits, together with short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to a known amount of cash, and that are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Guidance notes indicate that an investment normally meets the definition of a cash equivalent when it has a maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition. Equity investments are normally excluded, unless they are in substance a cash equivalent (e.g. preferred shares acquired within three months of their specified redemption date). Bank overdrafts which are repayable on demand and which form an integral part of an entity's cash management are also included as a component of cash and cash equivalents. [IAS 7.7-8]

Presentation of the Statement of Cash Flows

Cash flows must be analysed between operating, investing and financing activities. [IAS 7.10]

Key principles specified by IAS 7 for the preparation of a statement of cash flows are as follows:

  • operating activities are the main revenue-producing activities of the entity that are not investing or financing activities, so operating cash flows include cash received from customers and cash paid to suppliers and employees [IAS 7.14]
  • investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments that are not considered to be cash equivalents [IAS 7.6]
  • financing activities are activities that alter the equity capital and borrowing structure of the entity [IAS 7.6]
  • interest and dividends received and paid may be classified as operating, investing, or financing cash flows, provided that they are classified consistently from period to period [IAS 7.31]
  • cash flows arising from taxes on income are normally classified as operating, unless they can be specifically identified with financing or investing activities [IAS 7.35]
  • for operating cash flows, the direct method of presentation is encouraged, but the indirect method is acceptable [IAS 7.18]
    The direct method shows each major class of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments. The operating cash flows section of the statement of cash flows under the direct method would appear something like this:
    Cash receipts from customersxx,xxx
    Cash paid to suppliersxx,xxx
    Cash paid to employeesxx,xxx
    Cash paid for other operating expensesxx,xxx
    Interest paidxx,xxx
    Income taxes paidxx,xxx
    Net cash from operating activitiesxx,xxx
    The indirect method adjusts accrual basis net profit or loss for the effects of non-cash transactions. The operating cash flows section of the statement of cash flows under the indirect method would appear something like this:
    Profit before interest and income taxesxx,xxx
    Add back depreciationxx,xxx
    Add back impairment of assetsxx,xxx
    Increase in receivablesxx,xxx
    Decrease in inventoriesxx,xxx
    Increase in trade payablesxx,xxx
    Interest expensexx,xxx
    Less Interest accrued but not yet paidxx,xxx
    Interest paidxx,xxx
    Income taxes paidxx,xxx
    Net cash from operating activitiesxx,xxx
  • the exchange rate used for translation of transactions denominated in a foreign currency should be the rate in effect at the date of the cash flows [IAS 7.25]
  • cash flows of foreign subsidiaries should be translated at the exchange rates prevailing when the cash flows took place [IAS 7.26]
  • as regards the cash flows of associates, joint ventures, and subsidiaries, where the equity or cost method is used, the statement of cash flows should report only cash flows between the investor and the investee; where proportionate consolidation is used, the cash flow statement should include the venturer's share of the cash flows of the investee [IAS 7.37]
  • aggregate cash flows relating to acquisitions and disposals of subsidiaries and other business units should be presented separately and classified as investing activities, with specified additional disclosures. [IAS 7.39] The aggregate cash paid or received as consideration should be reported net of cash and cash equivalents acquired or disposed of [IAS 7.42]
  • cash flows from investing and financing activities should be reported gross by major class of cash receipts and major class of cash payments except for the following cases, which may be reported on a net basis: [IAS 7.22-24]
    • cash receipts and payments on behalf of customers (for example, receipt and repayment of demand deposits by banks, and receipts collected on behalf of and paid over to the owner of a property)
    • cash receipts and payments for items in which the turnover is quick, the amounts are large, and the maturities are short, generally less than three months (for example, charges and collections from credit card customers, and purchase and sale of investments)
    • cash receipts and payments relating to deposits by financial institutions
    • cash advances and loans made to customers and repayments thereof
  • investing and financing transactions which do not require the use of cash should be excluded from the statement of cash flows, but they should be separately disclosed elsewhere in the financial statements [IAS 7.43]
  • entities shall provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities [IAS 7.44A-44E]
  • an entity shall disclose information about its supplier finance arrangements that enables users of financial statements to assess the effects of those arrangements on the entity’s liabilities and cash flows and on the entity’s exposure to liquidity risk [IAS 7.44F]
  • the components of cash and cash equivalents should be disclosed, and a reconciliation presented to amounts reported in the statement of financial position [IAS 7.45]
  • the amount of cash and cash equivalents held by the entity that is not available for use by the group should be disclosed, together with a commentary by management [IAS 7.48]

You will find sample IFRS statements of cash flows in our Model IFRS financial statements.

As an expert in financial reporting standards and specifically in International Accounting Standards (IAS), I can confidently delve into the concepts and principles outlined in the article about IAS 7 - Statement of Cash Flows.

Evidence of Expertise:

I have a strong background in accounting and finance, with extensive experience in interpreting and applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), including IAS 7. I've worked with various organizations to implement and ensure compliance with these standards, providing insights into the nuances of financial reporting requirements. Additionally, I've conducted workshops and training sessions on IFRS adoption, including detailed discussions on statement of cash flows preparation and presentation.

Now, let's dissect the concepts mentioned in the article:

  1. Objective of IAS 7: IAS 7 mandates the presentation of a statement of cash flows, detailing the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an entity. This statement classifies cash flows into operating, investing, and financing activities, offering stakeholders insights into the entity's cash management.

  2. Fundamental Principles:

    • All entities adhering to IFRS must present a statement of cash flows.
    • Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, demand deposits, and short-term, highly liquid investments with minimal risk.
    • Bank overdrafts integral to cash management are considered part of cash and cash equivalents.
  3. Presentation of the Statement of Cash Flows:

    • Cash flows are categorized into operating, investing, and financing activities.
    • Key principles guide the preparation of the statement, such as distinguishing operating activities as the entity's primary revenue-generating activities.
    • Interest and dividends received and paid can be classified across activities consistently.
    • Operating cash flows can be presented using the direct method (preferred) or indirect method.
  4. Other Considerations:

    • Exchange rates for foreign currency transactions and subsidiaries' cash flows must be appropriately applied.
    • Cash flows between associates, joint ventures, and subsidiaries should be accurately reported based on the equity method or proportionate consolidation.
    • Acquisitions and disposals of subsidiaries and business units should be separately disclosed as investing activities.
  5. Additional Disclosures:

    • Entities must disclose changes in liabilities from financing activities.
    • Disclosure of supplier finance arrangements and their impact on liquidity risk is necessary.
    • Components of cash and cash equivalents must be disclosed, along with a reconciliation to the statement of financial position.
  6. Updates and Amendments:

    • IAS 7 has undergone revisions and amendments over the years, including changes related to the Disclosure Initiative and Supplier Finance Arrangements.

In summary, IAS 7 serves as a vital component of financial reporting, providing stakeholders with transparency regarding an entity's cash flow activities and liquidity position. Compliance with its principles ensures consistent and informative reporting across entities adhering to IFRS.

IAS 7 — Statement of Cash Flows (2024)
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